A codec is a software that turns sound or video into a computer file or back again. Every phone call you have ever heard, and every movie you have ever seen, and all the recorded music you have ever heard (except for actual film movies or phonographs or old cassette tapes) has been processed by an enCODer to record it, and another DECoder to play it back to you.
There are many many many different codecs. Early ones were designed around the limits that computers were not very fast or very powerful, so they did not do a very good job of using the fewest number of computer bits for the best possible audio or video. We have codecs today that are very very good at it, because our computers are fast and powerful enough.
There are many old codecs we can't easily stop using because they are built into systems that can't be easily all replaced at once, such as satellite receivers, telephone switches, and handset cellphones.
Some codecs were created to play movies and sound for computer games, and so the codec software was built into that particular game, and used only for one or a few games, and then never used again.
Codecs are very difficult to design well, because they depend on how human brains, human eyes, and human ears work. To save space, a codec does not want to spend computer power saving or playing back the parts of music or video that your brain cannot hear or see. So codec designers have to study human perception, and have to test things out on human volunteers, which is slow and expensive.
Widely used codecs are often "standards". Corporations, governments, and universities will work together to carefully design a codec that then can be used in many places at once, so that lots of systems can all talk to each other.
One of those groups is called the "Motion Picture Experts Group", which is supervised by an organization called the "International Standards Organization", and one of the standard codecs they designed was called "Audio Layer", and they made several versions of Audio Layer until the 3rd version was good enough. Thus "ISO MPEG version 2 AL version 3", or for short "MP3".
FFmpeg is an open source software project that was originally an implementation of one of the MPEG video codecs, but since then has become a project that tries to have an implementation of every possible codec. FFmpeg contains old codecs that are no longer used, old codecs that are still widely used, codecs that were used in old video games and never used again, new codecs that are now used a lot, and also lots of experimental codecs that people wrote to figure out what does and does not work in a codec.
Because FFmpeg has so many codecs in it, people now use it to "translate anything to anything", and they also use it to analyze and process audio and video information. My own employer uses FFmpeg in many places inside our company, to do lots of the things that our customers pay us for.
My nephew then had the question "So JPEG artifacts are because of an outdated codec?", to which I responded:
Every codec has artifacts if driven too hard, if its told "no, compress it even harder, fewer bits". There are newer codecs that are better than JPEG that don't start having visible artifacts so soon, and have artifacts that are less distracting. But we can't change all the image viewing software everywhere, so we will have to live with JPEG for a long time.
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I shot a lot of pictures with that camera while there, including a lot of long exposure shots of the aurora.
Later, I took a practical photography class in college, which open up the university's darkroom to me. I shot and developed a lot of b&w 35mm film using that camera and that darkroom, including a bunch of "push developed" shots theater rehearsals.
Over the next many years, that was my working camera.
When I finally went digital in the early 0's, that camera went into a box, where it sat in the dark. Occasionally ove the years, it would get unpacked, and then packed into another box, for another long dark wait.
Finally this weekend, it was unpacked, and then listed on a neighborhood "free stuff" group, and was picked up by the mother of a teenage girl, who is going to use it for a practical film photography class in the local high school.
I'm glad the class is making them use film, as a way to focus attention. And I'm glad that camera, that brought me so much joy and recorded so many memories and places, is now being used again.
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How an APA works:
* You write or draw on up to two sheets of paper, double sided.
* You send it to me, either via postal mail or email PDF.
* I collate them all together into a stack.
* I photocopy and bind the stack, making N copies. Enough to send one in the postal mail out to each member.
* I mail a copy to everyone.
* You get it the post. You read and enjoy it.
* You write or draw on up to two sheets of paper...
* I'll be willing to cover the copy costs and postage, at least until it gets too expensive.
* I'm willing to have members with non-US international addresses, again until it gets too expensive.
* Other members will not see your postal address, unless you yourself decide to put it on one of your pages.
* You can send your contribution in as a PDF, or as an actual sheet.
* Paper size has to be 8.5x11. Print will be B&W photocopy.
* I reserve the right to change number of sheets members get to send in
* I reserve the right to cap the number of members
* I reserve the right to drop any contribution, and I reserve the right to evict any member.
* The COC is: don't piss me off, don't virtue signal, content needs to be kid-friendly and safe-for-work.
* Topic is general, anything you want to write or draw. Fiction, non-fiction, gonzo journalism, bad poetry, good drawing, ...
So, if I decide to do this, do you want in?
Reply here, or msg me, or email me.
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K is shorter, Q is longer.
K is harder, Q is softer.
K is started with a full stop, Q is not.
K starts and stops. Q is practically a sibilant, and I can drag it out.
Between the two, my tongue makes a different shape and touches the roof of my mouth in a different spot.
Now I need to find an expert in Phonetics, to tell me the IPA symbol and name for my K and Q sounds, and to tell me if this is idiosyncratic or not.
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It's only a FIDO U2F token. I've had one for almost 2 years now, and my current employer issued me one on my first day of work, over a year ago. Mandating 2FA across an enterprise is hardly a new thing.
The actual stories here are:
* why did Google decide to cut out YubiCo?
* Was it price?
* Was it not-invented-here?
* Did Google not trust YubiCo to not backdoor the YubiKey tokens?
* Did Google want to put their own backdoor into the Titan tokens?
* Did Google license YubiCo's manufacturing patents? (If they did not, it will be really hard to manufacture them cheaper.)